Chapter -9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production (NCERT Solutions)
Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare. Ans.Animal husbandry deals with the caring, feeding and management of domesticated animals. It includes poultry, farming and fisheries. These animals are very useful for human beings because (i)they provide products which are used as food like meat, milk, eggs, honey, etc. (ii)there are some other substances obtained from animals which are beneficial to human beings like wool, silk, leather, bees wax etc.
If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production? Ans.To improve the quality & quantity of milk production, one should take care of the following points: (i) Proper feeding of the cattle with good quality of food. (ii)Clean and hygienic environment for cattles. (iii)Proper medication. (iv)Veterinary supervision. (v)Selection of good breeds having high yielding capacity combined with resistance to disease. (vi)Quality of breed.
What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objectives of animal breeding? Ans. A group of animals which are related by descent to each other and possess similar characteristics like appearance, size, features etc. are said to belong to a breed. The purpose of animal breeding is to produce animals with increased yield, faster growth, improved reproductive rate.
Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which of the methods is best? Why? Ans. Methods employed in animal breeding are (i)Inbreeding (ii)Out-breeding (iii)Cross-breeding (iv)Interspecific hybridization (v)Artificial insemination (vi)Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Cross breeding is the best method as it results in the development of superior traits of both the breeds and the progeny produced are fertile and there is no inbreeding depression.
What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives? Ans. Apiculture is the rearing and breeding of honeybees for the production of honey . It is important in our live as honeybees provide honey, which is a highly nutritive substance and beeswax is used in many industries. Honeybees also pollinate flowers of some very important plants like sunflower, apple, pear.
Discuss the role of fishery in enhancement of food production. Ans. Fishery is the rearing, breeding, catching & marketing of fishes and other aquatic animals. Fishes are important food for a large portion of human population. Meat of fishes is a rich source of proteins and other useful substances like polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The meat of other aquatic animals like prawn, crab is also consumed as food by human beings.
Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding. Ans. Plant breeding is a purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired plant types that are better suited for cultivation, give better yields and are disease resistant. The given flow chart shows various steps involved in plant breeding.
Explain what is meant by biofortification. Ans. Enhancement of nutritional quality of a crop by improving the content and quality of protein, fats, vitamins, minerals and micronutrient is called biofortification. It helps to improve public health.
Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and why? Ans. The apical or axillary meristems are best suited for making virus free plants because they are generally free from virus.
What is the major advantage of producing plants by micro propagation? Ans. It is faster method of producing a large number of plants. Plants formed by micro propagation are identical.
Find out the various components of the medium 12.used for propagation of an explant in vitro are ? Ans. The various components of the medium used for propagation of an explant in vitro are -Sucrose (source of energy & carbon) -Inorganic salts -Vitamins -Growth regulators (auxins and cytokinins)
Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed in India. Ans. Sonalika (wheat) Himgiri (wheat) Pusa Swamim (mustard) PusaSem2 (bean) Pusa Sawani (lady’s finger)