Branches of Biology

Following are the main branches of biology:

  • Anatomy – the study of organisms structures
    >Comparative anatomy – the study of evolution of species through similarities and differences in their anatomy
    >Histology – the study of tissues, a microscopic branch of anatomy
    Astrobiology (also known as exobiology, exopaleontology, and bioastronomy) – the study of evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe
    Biochemistry – the study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level
    Biological engineering – the attempt to create products inspired by biological systems or to modify and interact with the biological systems
    Biogeography – the study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally
    Bioinformatics – the use of information technology for the study, collection, and storage of genomic and other biological data
    Biolinguistics – the study of the biology and evolution of language
    Biomechanics – the study of the mechanics of living beings
    Biomedical research – the study of health and disease
    Biophysics – the study of biological processes by applying the theories and methods traditionally employed in the physical sciences
    Biotechnology – the study of the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology
    Synthetic biology – research integrating biology and engineering; construction of biological functions not found in nature
    Botany – the study of plants
    >Phycology – scientific study of algae
    >Plant physiology – concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants
    Cell biology – the study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell
    Chronobiology – the study of periodic events in living systems
    Cognitive biology – the study of cognition
    Conservation biology – the study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife
    Cryobiology – the study of the effects of lower than normally preferred temperatures on living beings
    Developmental biology – the study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure
    >Embryology – the study of the development of embryo (from fecundation to birth)
    >Gerontology – study of ageing processes
    Ecology – the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment
    Evolutionary biology – the study of the origin and descent of species over time
    Genetics – the study of genes and heredity
    >Genomics – the study of genomes
    >Epigenetics – the study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence
    Immunology – the study of the immune system
    Marine biology (or biological oceanography) – the study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings
    Microbiology – the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things
    >Bacteriology – the study of bacteria
    >Mycology – the study of fungi
    >Parasitology – the study of parasites and parasitism
    >Virology – the study of viruses and some other virus-like agents
    Molecular biology – the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry
    Nanobiology – the application of nanotechnology in biological research, and the study of living organisms and parts on the nanoscale level of organization
    Neuroscience – the study of the nervous system
    Paleontology – the study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life
    Pathobiology or pathology – the study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease
    Pharmacology – the study of the interactions between drugs and organisms
    Physiology – the study of the functions and mechanisms occurring in living organisms
    Phytopathology – the study of plant diseases (also called Plant Pathology)
    Psychobiology – the application of methods traditionally used in biology to study human and non-human animals behaviour
    Quantum biology – the study of the role of quantum phenomena in biological processes
    Systems biology – the study complex interactions within biological systems through a holistic approach
    Structural biology – a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysicsconcerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules
    Theoretical biology – the branch of biology that employs abstractions and mathematical models to explain biological phenomena
    Zoology – the study of animals, including classification, physiology, development, evolution and behaviour, including:
    >Ethology – the study of animal behaviour
    >Entomology – the study of insects
    >Herpetology – the study of reptiles and amphibians
    >Ichthyology – the study of fish
    >Mammalogy – the study of mammals
    >Ornithology – the study of birds