What is Biology?

Biology is the branch of science that studies life and living organisms. This includes such subjects as the cell, genes, inheritance, microorganisms, plants, animals, and the human body. 
There are many branches of science that are part of biology including ecology (how organisms interact with their environment), agriculture (the study of producing crops from the land), biochemistry (the chemical reactions needed to support life), botany (the study of plants), physiology (how living organisms function), and zoology (the study of animals). 
Biology is the science of life. Its name is derived from the Greek words “bios” (life) and “logos” (study). Biologists study the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution and distribution of living organisms.
There are many branches of science that are part of biology including ecology (how organisms interact with their environment), agriculture (the study of producing crops from the land), biochemistry (the chemical reactions needed to support life), botany (the study of plants), physiology (how living organisms function), and zoology (the study of animals). 

Fundamentals of Biology 
Biology is based on some key theories and fundamentals:
The cell – The cell is the fundamental unit of all life. Every living organism is made up of one or more cells.
Genetics – Genetics is the study of how organisms pass on features and traits from generation to generation.
Homeostasis – Homeostasis is the process by which an organism or cell is able to regulate its conditions. For example, humans are able to regulate their body temperature to 98.6 degrees.
Energy – All living organisms are able to use external substances for energy. For example, humans use food such as vegetables and meat. Plants gather energy from the Sun through photosynthesis.
The word biology comes from the Greek words “bios” which means life and “logia” which means “study of”. Put those two words together and you get the “study of life.” 
There are generally considered to be at least nine “umbrella” fields of biology, each of which consists of multiple subfields.
*Biochemistry: the study of the material substances that make up living things
*Botany: the study of plants, including agriculture
*Cellular biology: the study of the basic cellular units of living things
*Ecology: the study of how organisms interact with their environment
*Evolutionary biology: the study of the origins and changes in the diversity of life over time
*Genetics: the study of heredity
*Molecular biology: the study of biological molecules
*Physiology: the study of the functions of organisms and their parts
*Zoology: the study of animals, including animal behavior
Adding to the complexity of this enormous idea is the fact that these fields overlap. It is impossible to study zoology without knowing a great deal about evolution, physiology and ecology. You can’t study cellular biology without knowing biochemistry and molecular biology as well.
Framework of understanding
All the branches of biology can be unified within a framework of five basic understandings about living things. Studying the details of these five ideas provides the endless fascination of biological research:
*Cell Theory: There are three parts to cell theory — the cell is the basic unit of life, all living things are composed of cells, and all cells arise from pre-existing cells.
*Energy: All living things require energy, and energy flows between organisms and between organisms and the environment.
*Heredity: All living things have DNA and genetic information codes the structure and function of all cells.
*Equilibrium: All living things must maintain homeostasis, a state of balanced equilibrium between the organism and its environment.
*Evolution: This is the overall unifying concept of biology. Evolution is the change over time that is the engine of biological diversity.
Biology and other sciences
Biology is often studied in conjunction with other sciences, such as mathematics and engineering, and even social sciences. Here are a few examples: 
●Biophysics involves matching patterns in life and analyzing them with physics and mathematics, according to the Biophysical Society. 
●Astrobiology is the study the evolution of life in the universe, including the search for extraterrestrial life, according to NASA.
●Biogeography is the study of the distribution and evolution of life forms and the causes of the distribution, according to Dartmouth College.
●Biomathematics involves creating mathematical models to better understand patterns and phenomena within the biology world, according to North Carolina State University.
●Bioengineering is the application of engineering principles to biology principles and vice versa, according the University of California Berkeley.
●Sociologists often study how biology can shape social structures, cultures, and interactions, according to the American Sociological Association.

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